Boiled eggs are one of the best sources for cheap, easy, delicious protein in your diet, and a good boiled egg is a great snack. But eggs are more complex than their simple appearance suggests. Different proteins make up this two-part ingredient, and the yolk and white set at different temperatures. The problem with hard boiled eggs is getting the right texture rather than rubbery whites and crumbly yolks—not to mention being able to peel them easily. Just a few tweaks to your current egg-boiling technique can yield the eggsact results you’re looking for.
The lore of eggs is perhaps greater than that of any other food item, and more than one chef has gone on record judging others based on their ability—or inability—to cook an egg. —Cooking for Geeks, Jeff Potter
Hard Boiled Egg Challenges
- Rubbery whites—Resulting from being overcooked.
- Chalky, crumbly yolks—Again, from overcooking.
- Difficult to peel—The egg’s membrane fuses to the shell and egg protein during cooking.
- Pocked or misshapen eggs—from difficult peeling
- Green outline around the yolk—caused from cooking for a long period of time. Older eggs are more prone to turning green than fresh eggs.
Though some people claim that adding salt, vinegar, or baking soda to the water when you boil an egg can affect its final texture, in my testing, I found that the only factors that matter when boiling an egg in its shell are time and temperature. —The Food Lab, Kenji Lopez-Alt
Anatomy of An Egg
Understanding Egg Proteins
Yolks and whites are made up of different proteins that have different molecular structures and behave differently when heat is applied (collectively, their proteins are called albumen).
Just like meat, egg proteins denature and become firm and opaque. Tightly coiled, globular protein molecules unfold with the vibrations of thermal energy transfer. This unfolding is called denaturation. Once denatured, the strands of protein aggregate, or coagulate, making the once transparent egg white opaque. Boiled and fried eggs turn white and opaque, and custards become thick.
Egg whites are 88% water, 11% protein, and 1% minerals and carbohydrates. The most abundant protein found in whites is ovalbumin. Ovalbumin molecules are globular and tightly coiled. When heat is applied the coiled proteins unfold and aggregate together (see illustration below). Once the proteins aggregate the egg white becomes firm and opaque. Egg whites begin to thicken at 140°F (60°C) and are fully set and firm at 180°F (82°C).
Egg yolks are composed of 50% water, 34% lipids, and 16% protein. Ovotransferrin is the predominant protein in egg yolks. Egg yolks begin to thicken at 150°F (66°C) and are fully firm at 158°F (70°C). The structure of ovotransferrin molecules is different from ovalbumin.
Egg yolks proteins can be thought of as “spheres within spheres.” The proteins are not folded over on one another, rather, they consist of larger particles that contain many sub-particles. When heated, the particles become firm and stick together (see illustration below). The texture of cooked yolks should be firm but still smooth. Overcooked yolks become grainy and chalky.
Boiled Egg Doneness: Temperature Gradients
Soft boiled eggs are to egg doneness as medium rare steaks are to meat doneness—it’s all about temperature gradients, or the difference in temperature that exists from a food’s exterior to its thermal center. Temperature gradients exist because heat energy transfers from the outside in. A soft-boiled egg has a firm white and a still-runny yolk just like a medium rare steak has a flavorful seared crust with a soft pink/red interior.
A soft boiled egg has a firm white and a still-runny yolk just like a medium rare steak has a flavorful seared crust with a soft pink/red interior.
A hard boiled egg has a firm white and a solid yolk, and can be thought of as a well-done steak where the protein has been fully denatured from edge to edge.
Eggs can be cooked in innumerable ways to suit personal preferences for doneness, but there are times when hard-cooked eggs are the best option:
- Cold salads such as cobb, potato, or egg
- Deviled eggs
- Coloring eggs for Easter
- Preparing eggs for higher risk individuals who need fully-cooked foods
Fully Cooked Without Overcooking
The challenge with a hard boiled egg is to have a fully cooked yolk without overcooking the white. A common mistake is to overcook boiled eggs just to be sure they’re thoroughly cooked (the same mistake is often made when cooking chicken). Without a well-planned cooking method, the results are unpredictable. Some of the eggs may be perfectly cooked, while the majority are a bit overcooked and difficult to peel.
Which Cooking Method is Best for Hard-Boiled Eggs?
The most traditional method of boiling eggs is to immerse whole eggs in cold water in a pan, bring the water to a boil, and allow it to continue to boil for 10…12…15…sometimes even 20 minutes long. Then remove the pan from the heat. Using this method over and over again usually results in rubbery, chalky eggs that are difficult to peel.
Experts recommend different methods for the most perfectly cooked hard boiled egg. We tried sous vide, steaming, blanch-shock then slowly boiling, and placing raw eggs directly into boiling water in addition to the traditional method mentioned above.
Just a few degrees makes a difference when it comes to the texture of a cooked egg. —Cook’s Science, Cook’s Illustrated
Each method has a specific cooking time. Use a timer like the TimeStick® to wear around your neck so you know exactly how much time is left wherever you are. Or use a timer like the Extra Big And Loud. Its alarm’s volume is adjustable and can be heard in the noisiest of kitchens.
➤ Thermal Tip: Ice Bath & Starting Temp
Ice Bath: To immediately stop the cooking process, all of the eggs from each method were placed into ice water after cooking and chilled for 15 minutes. The ice bath is an important step to halt carryover cooking to avoiding overcooking the eggs.
It also helps the boiled eggs to retain their round shape rather than flattening on the wide end. As the temperature of the egg protein increases it expands and flattens the air cell at the wide end of the egg. If the cooked egg cools slowly the air cell reinflates, creating a small dent in the bottom of the egg before it sets completely.
Starting Temp: All eggs cooked started cold directly from the refrigerator.
1. Sous Vide
- Cook whole eggs in a 170°F (77°C) water bath for 1 hour.
- Shock in an ice bath for 15 minutes.
The truly obsessive kitchen nerd’s way to do it is to maintain the water at precisely 170°F so that the yolk comes out perfectly cooked and the white is still tender. —The Food Lab, Kenji Lopez-Alt
Result: A fully-cooked egg that is still soft. The white isn’t a bit rubbery and the yolk is smooth. The only downside is that the shell can still a bit difficult to peel.
2. Boiled Starting with Cold Water
- Place raw whole eggs into a pan and cover with cold tap water. Bring to a boil and simmer for 10 minutes.
- Shock in an ice bath for 15 minutes.
Result: The whites were rubbery and the yolk was crumbly. Peeling the eggs was most difficult with this cooking method. For these two reasons, this was our least favorite way to cook whole eggs.
3. Boiled Starting with Boiling Water
Time needed: 26 minutes.
How Long to boil eggs
- Place whole raw eggs directly into a pot of boiling water.
Boil for 11 minutes.
- Shock in an ice bath
Leave in ice bath for 15 minutes
Result: Some of the eggs cracked immediately after being placed into the boiling water, leaking some of the liquid white. The whites were quite rubbery and the yolks were dry and crumbly. However, these eggs were fairly easy to peel. The eggs that cracked were a bit misshapen after peeling.
This method is the favorite of such experts as Jeff Potter, Cook’s Illustrated, Alton Brown, and Kenji Lopez-Alt, just to name a few.
- Prepare steamer or pot with a steam basket insert with 1 to 2 inches of water in the bottom of the pot. Put a lid on the pot and bring the water to a rolling boil before adding the eggs. The eggs should be suspended above the water.
- Place whole raw eggs in a single layer into a steamer, cover with a tight-fitting lid, and cook for 12 minutes.
- Shock in an ice bath for 15 minutes.
Result: This was our favorite method. The whites were tender and the yolk was smooth—almost fluffy as compared to the other yolks. Our favorite part about these boiled eggs was that each one was incredibly easy to peel.
5. Blanch, Shock, Boil
- Place whole raw eggs into boiling water for 30 seconds, remove and shock* in ice water for 30 seconds.
- Place blanched eggs into a pan and cover eggs with cold tap water. Bring the water to a boil and simmer for 8 minutes.
*In cooking terms, “shock” means to change the temperature rapidly.
- Shock the finished eggs in an ice bath for 15 minutes.
Result: Some of the eggs cracked as soon as they were placed into the boiling water, and the texture was similar to the eggs that were cooked from boiling water and from cold water—rubbery and crumbly. Peeling was easy, though. The eggs that were cracked were a bit misshapen.
The Secret to Easy-to-Peel Hard Boiled Eggs is…Shocking!
Some say that boiling your eggs with salt or baking soda is the secret to easy-peeling eggs. But easy-to-peel hard-boiled eggs are all about temperature. The egg protein right beneath the shell needs to quickly set up, separating from the shell’s membrane—a cooking method that involves an initial shock of high heat is the way to go.
When the outermost layer of egg protein’s temperature rises gradually, it will fuse to the membrane right beneath the shell, making peeling difficult and as a result, the cooked egg’s surface will be pitted. If easy peeling is your goal, starting your eggs in cold water is the worst thing you can do.
Top Recommended Hard Boiled Egg Cooking Method
For the best all-around hard boiled egg cooking method, we agree with experts who suggest steaming as the way to go. The shells slip right off and the eggs are silky smooth and unblemished. When cooked the appropriate amount of time, the texture of both the yolk and white is firm but still tender.
Understanding what’s going on with the food you cook really makes the experience easier, more enjoyable, and the results more delicious! Whether you’re making deviled eggs for a party or coloring Easter eggs with your family, keep these tips in mind and you’ll have the best hard boiled eggs yet.
Cook’s Science, Cook’s Illustrated
Cooking For Geeks, Jeff Potter
Paul Hamnett says
A wonderful comprehensive analysis of this overlooked skill.
Now we just have to get the word out to everyone!
Thank you for your comment. And I agree! Everyone needs to know that steaming and shocking is the way to go!
Carl Arnett says
in your recommended method of Steaming a few more details please. Is the water brought to a full boil before the steamer & eggs are added ? or started cold ? Cover the steamer pot immediately after eggs are added? can you overcrowd the steaming basket ?
Thank you in advance.
The water in the steamer is brought to a full boil before adding the eggs so they begin cooking immediately in a high-heat environment. The eggs are cooked directly from the refrigerator, cover the pot with a tight-fitting lid while cooking, and keep the eggs in a single layer in your steamer for even cooking.
Stan Killian says
The questions I always have after reading articles about how to cook eggs, which no one seems to address, are; what is the impact of egg size on the cooking time, and are these cooking times based on eggs at room temperature or direct from the refrigerator? I always use extra large or jumbo eggs and store them in the fridge.
The eggs are cooked cold directly from the refrigerator, and we used large eggs. Try cooking your extra large eggs for 1 additional minute, and your jumbo eggs for 2 additional minutes.
D Call says
This is very helpful; I will steam my Easter eggs this year. How does the temperature of the eggs before steaming affect cooking time – should they be cold, or at room temp, when they are placed into the steamer?
Cook your eggs directly from the refrigerator.
Zenon Chaykowsky says
At what temperature should the eggs be when you put them into a steamer? Straight from the fridge or room temperature?
Cook your eggs straight from the refrigerator.
John Koke says
Are your egg-cooking directions for any size egg? Should the eggs come right from the refrigerator when starting to cook?
We used large eggs. If you’re using medium eggs, cook them for 1 minute less time, and about 1 additional minute for extra large eggs. The eggs were cooked cold directly from the refrigerator.
J Robertsson says
I’ll try the steaming method to compare but currently use a method not mentioned. Put eggs in cold water, bring just to boil. Once water reaches a boil, cover and take off the heat. Let sit for 12 minutes for large eggs, 15 minutes for extra large. Come out tender and yolk is not dry at all. Sometimes easy to peel, sometimes less so. I’ve read that that’s due to age of eggs. Super fresh eggs are harder to peel.
Thank you so much for your comment! It’s amazing how many different methods there are for cooking eggs.
J Robertsson says
I should have tried the steaming method before posting my comment. I’m a convert!
Isn’t it amazing?! And so simple too. I’m so glad you gave the steaming method a try.
David Roberts says
When steaming, are the basket and lid in place while the water is brought to a boil, then the eggs are added and allowed to steam for 12 minutes? And does the lid go back on during that 12 minute steaming process? That info was a little scant on details. :-/ Thanks!
Very good questions. The water in the steamer is brought to a boil first so the cold eggs are placed immediately into a high heat environment. Cover the pot with a tight-fitting lid and cook for 12 minutes.
Excellent analysis. What about pricking the air sack end to prevent cracking and misshapen eggs? Is that needed, or does it help when steaming them? It certainly does when dropping eggs into boiling water.
There are definitely some who suggest pricking the air cell at the wide end of the egg. It definitely can help. However, the process of shocking the eggs in an ice bath sets the still-soft egg protein in its shell for a perfectly round egg. Give it a try!
Paul Brown says
Unfortunately, the blog completely disregards the effect of altitude on timing. As altitude increases, the boiling point of water decreases, and the time to cook anything in water (or steam) increases.
This omission is surprising, since Thermoworks is located in a high mountain valley. This reader has no idea whether the timing in the blog is meant for 4500 feet, or whether sea level timing is meant.
You are correct. At our altitude, the boiling point is about 203-204°F and the lower air pressure seems to affect baking and sugar cooking the most where we are. The expert methods we sourced were written for sea level conditions and worked at our altitude.
With lower boiling points at very high altitudes, you’ll need to increase the steaming or boiling time to thoroughly cook your eggs. The egg needs to reach a temperature of about 170-180°F to set up firmly from edge to edge. At an elevation of 10,000 feet, the boiling point is about 193-194°F—still high enough for the eggs to reach their doneness temperature.
The exact amount of time will vary depending on your specific altitude, but the increase will likely be around 2 minutes at 5,000-6,000 ft, and 6-8 minutes at 10,000 feet.
Thank you for your comment,
Richard Stewart says
In these experiments, were the eggs room temperature or refrigerator temperature?
The eggs were cold, cooked directly from the refrigerator.
Joe M. says
When steaming the eggs in your test, were the eggs at refrigerator temperature (~35F) when placed in the steamer or were they first brought to room temp? I suspect this would impact cooking time for the desired result. Any recommendations as to steaming time for both scenarios?
We used cold eggs directly from the refrigerator for all of the cooking methods, and that is also the recommendation of such experts as Kenji Lopez-Alt, Alton Brown, and Cook’s Illustrated. It does impact the final result. You have greater chances of overcooking your eggs when starting with room temperature eggs. Try reducing the cooking time by two minutes if you do start with warmer eggs.
Robert W Thompson says
I’ve been using the technique recommended by the Michigan Egg Producers Assoc. for years with always perfect results.. Cover eggs with an inch of cold water. Bring to a rolling boil. Remove from heat. Let stand for 15 minutes. Remove from water. Let stand to room temperature. Refrigerate for use as needed.
Mary Kay says
When steaming eggs do you start with an already steaming pot or start with a cold steamer?
Start by preparing your steamer first. The water should be boiling before adding the eggs.
MARK S BECKSTROM says
Great article. I will have to try the steam method next time.
I am wondering how egg size affects this. The article did not mention if these were large eggs etc. So would extra large require an extra minute? Small eggs less time?
Very good question. We used large eggs. For medium eggs experiment with removing them at 11 minutes, and 13 minutes for extra large eggs.
Lynne yarbrough says
Just a couple questions regarding the steaming method of hard boiled eggs.
Should the water be boiling under the seamer basket when the eggs are put on.
When the 12 minutes are up do you shock them in cold water like other methods?
I may be giving this one a try. My biggest problem has always having problems peeling the eggs. Even tried not using Extra fresh eggs.
Prepare your steamer by bringing the water to a boil before adding the eggs. The water level should be below the level of your steamer basket so the eggs are not touching the water. And yes, shock the steamed eggs in an ice bath immediately after the 12 minutes are up.
Let us know how it goes!
I had read about the “Ice water bath” method to stop the cooking before, and once I understood this and started to use it, my eggs were no longer overlooked.
That said, I am anxious to try the steamed method you described above because I am still dealing with the annoying “peeling” problem.
The one question I have is, “Should the eggs be at room temperature before I start the cooking process, or can they go directly from the fridge into the steamer”?
Thanks for the great article!
Cook your eggs directly from the refrigerator.
Roman Susalka says
What is the “best” temperature for haddock?
The internal doneness temperature for seafood as recommended by the USDA for food safety is 145°F. Many chefs recommend a doneness temperature of 130-135°F for fish like haddock.
Tim Garriques says
In ‘The Perfect Hard Boiled Egg’ there is one small, but I suspect very significant detail left out of the process …. are the eggs started at room temperature or refrigerated?
Yes, that important detail wasn’t originally included but has been added to the post. Cook your eggs directly from the refrigerator.
Tim Garriques says
Thank you, Kim.
So, a few comments…
1. I was taught, and my experience matches, that the green around the egg yolk comes from overcooking the egg. If you overcook a fresh egg, you can get the green layer.
2. Older eggs do peel more easily; fresher egg whites beat more easily for meringues/ angel food cakes.
Most commercial eggs are 2+-weeks old. If you store your eggs covered, even commercial eggs will be good for more than a month. Actually even longer. I had a buyer for a military commissary in Asia explain how they kept a 2-month supply of eggs in a giant walk-in refrigerator so that they couldn’t be forced into paying the local providers more. He told me that they could go for up to 3 months — and still keep a reasonable shelf life for consumers.
If you’re using eggs from a local farm (or your own) you might want to let them age for a week or so before you make hard cooked eggs so that they’ll peel easier. (But they make amazing angel food cakes.) The fresher eggs also make wonderful poached eggs, w/almost none of the white becoming runny. (I’m talking about real poached eggs floated in a pan of water and not coddled eggs made in a cup or dish.
3. I like having hard cooked eggs around and years ago acquired the Chefs Choice egg cooker. It works w/the steaming method. You can shift the timing if you want soft cooked eggs or if you’re using different sized eggs. It’s one of the few special use items I own. It holds 7 eggs and I can easily use it while cooking in the kitchen. When the alarm goes off, I can easily lift out the rack and lower it into a bowl of ice water.
Larry Hill says
Does the boiled egg timing vary with altitude using the steamed process? We live in Billings, Montana where the altitude is about 3500 feet. Please respond.
Excellent question. Our altitude here in Utah is 4,500 feet and the 12 minutes worked very well for our steamed eggs. You could experiment by pull 1 egg at 11 minutes, one at 12, and another at 13 to see what the yolk texture difference will be.
Interesting, informative and timely! Do you start all methods with eggs at room temp or cold from fridge?
We obviously overlooked that part of the post! All of the eggs were cooked directly from the fridge. Thanks for your question!
The time and results would seem to depend on the temperature of the eggs before any cooking method is started. For the times and results given in your article, what was the initial temperature of the eggs? If it was provided, I missed it. Thanks.
The eggs were cooked directly from the refrigerator.
Thank you for the thorough analysis of this age-old problem. I was wondering, however, what the starting temperature of the eggs was for your experiments. Should the eggs be at room temperature or right out of the fridge? I assume this would affect cooking times.
Yes. The eggs were cooked directly from the refrigerator.
My elevation is 5750′. My water boils about 201-202 degrees. Would my steaming time still be 12 minutes or do I need slightly longer? I definitely do not want soft yolks. Thanks.
Our elevation is about 4500 feet and our boiling point is about 203-204°F. 12 minutes worked perfectly well for our eggs. If you want to experiment, pull one egg at 12 minutes and another at 13 to see if there is a noticeable difference.
Good question, thanks!
Dan R says
You don’t indicate the starting temperature for the eggs, e.g., the ones steamed. Is it room temperature (20C)? Refrigerator temperature (2C)?
The eggs are cooked directly from the refrigerator.
Alton Blodgett says
I inspected eggs for USDA as part of my duties with a state department of agriculture where I worked for 33 years. I was also the secretary of a state poultry association for 16 years. I was taught by those in the industry to hard boil eggs by starting them in cold water, boiling gently for 5 minutes, pulling them off the heat and letting them stand for 10 minutes and then cooling them rapidly in cold water. The whites are firm and I thought the yolk texture was fine. However, I am intrigued by the steaming method described above. I do have a question. Do you insert the steamer basket of eggs into an already steaming pot or do you insert the basket when the pot is cold, bring it up to steaming and then time for 11 minutes?
I have always found fresh eggs difficult to peel using the boiling method and want to see if steaming fresh eggs makes a difference.
The steaming method really does make a huge difference in the peelability of the boiled eggs. Give it a try!
The water in your steam setup needs to be fully heated before adding the eggs. Then start your 12 minute timer.
melva sue kettering says
The only thing you left off is, adding after a boil is reached, baking soda. This step makes the peel easier. 1/2 to 1 tsp will work well in a small amount of eggs, 4 to 6.
Try it and let me know how you fare.
melva sue kettering says
OOPS! That is what you said.. So sorry, yes I carefully place my eggs in boiling water. After adding the soda, the temp drops. It will rise again as you know.
Loudmouth misspeaks again.
I have a couple of questions–do you use eggs straight from the refrigerator, or room-temperature eggs? Do you put the steamer basket containing the eggs over the water before it reaches the boiling point, or wait until the water boils and then add the basket with eggs? Thanks.
Great questions. The eggs are placed in the steamer basket directly from the fridge, and the eggs are placed into the steamer after the water has reached the boiling point.
For the steam method of hard cooked eggs, do you place in ice water after cooking?
Yes, the steamed eggs are placed in an ice bath for 15 minutes immediately after cooking.
Mel Lehrman says
Excellent article and very easily understood and answered many questions re eggs.
So glad to hear it! It’s such a simple food to cook, but it’s nice to understand things a little better for the best results possible.
Dale Kothbauer says
After steaming, do you cold shock the eggs in ice water? Or just let them cool down other wise?
Yes. The eggs in each cooking method, including steaming, were shocked in an ice bath immediately after cooking.
My technique is to first puncture the large end with a tine from a corn ear holder then drop into cold water in 2 qt pan of water. Bring to a boil over high heat. As soon as it is at full boil take the pan off the heat and let sit for 10 to 15 minutes depending on the number of eggs. After sitting time has expired I run cold water in the pan and roll the eggs against the side of the pan until they are cracked all around. Once the eggs are cooled, I peel them under water.
I did it your way for years and years. Trust me, the steaming method is the only way to go. The eggs will peel much easier than you can ever have experienced with your current method.
Question – Was the water already boiing in the steamer? (I’m going to try this using a steamer pot on the stove).
Good question, and yes. The water in the steamer is brought to a steady boil before the cold eggs are added to the steamer basket.
When you put it into the steamer, is the water already boiled? Or you start boiling the water at that point and start the timer? What is the time needed for soft boiled egg in that case? Thanks!
Yes, the water in the steamer pot on the stove is already at a rolling boil ready to go before the eggs are added. For soft-boiled eggs that have rich, sauce-like yolks the cooking time is only 6-1/2 minutes.
Ooooh. I’m going to try that too!
Howard H. says
Great comparitive article. One piece of information was lacking: Your photographed, halved eggs all showed nicely centered yolks. What is your favorite trick for ensuring that the yolk isn’t lopsided in its white?
For the best-centered yolks in your hard cooked eggs, we love the tip from Alton Brown. He recommends storing your eggs on their side to keep the yolks looking pretty in the middle of the egg. Wrap the egg carton with a rubber band or two and store the carton on its side. Also, make sure your eggs are fresh. Yolks in fresh eggs tend to stay in the center better.
Michael Tyler says
How much does egg size—large, extra-large, jumbo—affect the timing of steaming eggs?
Great question. The eggs we used were large eggs. For medium eggs try pulling them at 11 minutes, and for extra large try cooking them for 13.
We recently started baking our eggs for our hard boiled needs. Place the eggs in a muffin pan and put them in the oven at 350 for 30 minutes. Once the time is up, the eggs go into ice water for 15 minutes. The whites and yolks turn out very well and the shells mostly come off easily (there are always one or two that don’t play along). The only issue we have is the occasional scorch mark on the bottom of the egg. The extra time involved is fine as we can do other things in the kitchen while the eggs cook.
Lee Rappaport says
After years of experimenting with hard boiled egg methods this is the one! Steamed – came out flawless – thanks.
So glad your eggs turned out well! It’s nice to have a method you can count on.
Richard Burr says
The age of the eggs is also a factor…. Fresh eggs are harder to peel than older eggs…. Two weeks or less from the chicken will be hard to peel no matter what method is used….
How long cooking for quail eggs? I’m thinking 4 minutes
I would try 2-4 minutes.
Mike Murray says
Tried the steam method and WOW, what a difference. Who knew you could improve on something as simple as a hard boiled egg! Whites aren’t rubbery, yolks have a great texture.
Can’t wait to ‘devil’ up a batch. You can in fact teach an old dog new tricks. Thanks!
So glad this method worked well for you!! I love finding new tips and tricks to improve simple tasks. Have a Happy Easter!
I get fresh eggs, several dozen at a time. I decided to experiment and put a dozen in the freezer, in the shells. I haven’t checked them yet, but the ones who haven’t split the shell I’m going to try hard boiled (I read the freezing process makes the proteins “weird” and HB seemed the best option to me). May split the difference – half of the survivors sous vide and half steamed. They’re definately “old” so hopefully they’ll peel.
Alexander, we are not nutritionists, so you may want to consult a trained nutritionist, but a little research suggests that hard boiled eggs retain more nutritional value than either fried or scrambled eggs.